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It is easiest to consider two different aspects to back pain.
Firstly - the underlying problem that most of us will have from an early age.
Poor posture can be part of the problem but the most significant long-term feature is stiffness to the spine. A healthy spine is one of the strongest parts of your body. It is made of bony blocks joined by discs to give it strength and flexibility and is reinforced by the facet joints and strong ligaments. A healthy spine can absorb a great deal of stress through this flexibility but when these joints stiffen, and no longer allow flexible movement, stress will travel along the spine to its two extremities. The overstressing caused by this lack of flexible movement leaves us prone to the sudden onset of acute pain, most commonly to the low back or neck. This acute pain will often start for no apparent reason and if left untreated can lead to long lasting chronic pain.